Stroke - The Nature of Disease




Stroke is the result of circulatory insufficiency in the part of the brain. This can be caused by thrombosis or embolism, or hemorrhage into the brain from the damaged vessel. Infarction (death) of the brain can occur. Stroke is more common in men than in women. In terms of severity, it can range from minimal trouble, forgotten in a few minutes, to a severe blow, causing loss of consciousness and death. The degree of severity depends on the location and extent of the damage. In the case of a strong blow, the patient almost instantly loses consciousness, death then is a matter of several hours; in other cases, consciousness remains, but there are long-term consequences. A stroke can also manifest as sudden paralysis on one side or in some part of the body without losing consciousness. Or sometimes paralysis can develop within a few hours, accompanied by persistent pulsating headache, vomiting, dizziness, and numbness of the limbs.Recovery depends on the age, general health, location and size of the damage. Even if full recovery is possible, it can last for years. In some cases irreparable damage is caused to the body when the muscles are paralyzed or very weak. Consequences occur on the side of the body opposite to the damaged side of the brain (since each side of the body is controlled by the opposite half of the brain). A stroke in the side of the brain that is “dominant” can also disrupt speech. Mental concentration may also be impaired, but sanity and basic personality traits remain intact. The treatment consists mainly of providing rest and a long period of correction with careful care, physiotherapy and (if necessary) speech therapy.


To lower blood pressure, if it is high, medications are sometimes used to prevent further damage.


Two common types of congenital heart defects are shown here: atrial septal defect (left), in which there is a wide opening from birth between the right and left atria, and ventricular septal defect (right), in which there is a similar opening between the ventricles.In each case, since the pressure in the left half of the heart is higher, the result is that the oxygen-enriched blood from the left side of the heart passes through the hole and mixes with the blood-poor oxygen in the right side.


These charts show the likelihood of a person having heart disease (i.e., angina pectoris, heart attack or death). The probabilities for different age groups are compared, as well as the effects of the three largest and most measurable risk factors: high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol and smoking.


The diagrams show how probability varies with age. For example, in the absence of risk factors, a 35-year-old man is in less danger, but the probability increases markedly by 50 years and even higher by 65 years. Similarly, for a man with all three risk factors, the likelihood increases between 35 and 50 years. But then, by the age of 65, it is slightly reduced, since by that time very many of this group are dying.


The last line shows that the probability of heart disease for a 65-year-old woman with all risk factors is only 2/3 of the probability for a 65-year-old man.


Stroke - The Nature of Disease



These are the most serious diseases that can happen when the process of cell division in the human body goes out of control. They lead to the formation of tumors. Rak1 is a tumor of a certain kind. Cancer and similar diseases affect every fourth person.


Normal cell division



The body constantly produces new cells for growth and recovery - approximately 500 billion daily.


In the foreign literature, the term "cancer" refers to any malignant tumor, regardless of the kind of tissue they are afflicted with. Domestic oncologists call this term only malignant tumors of epithelial tissue. The name is due to the similarity of the spreading cancerous tumor with the crustaceans flaking to the sides, as seen by Hippocrates. Other tumors have a different look. - Ed.

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