The paper model of the Nakajima Ki-84 Hayate fighter
The paper model of the Nakajima Ki-84 Hayate fighteris a Japanese army fighter of the Second World War period.
Materials and tools:
- scissors, paper knife, drawing ruler
- glue brushes and paint;
- watercolors (or pencils), toothpicks;
- clear acrylic glue ("Moment", etc.);
- to print the model matte photo paper with a density of 170-180 g / m2; for small parts - 70-80 g / m2.
- Before you assemble the part, read the drawings and instructions. Determine the place of each part and imagine its assembly;
- Make holes in details before cutting out the part;
- Cut only the part (s) you need right now. Unpacked items in a box, and unused sheets in a closed folder (as an option). Throwing out trash after work, carefully inspect the scrap paper;
- To better fold the part, it is necessary to hold the ruler along the fold line, pressing lightly with the blunt side of the knife or a toothpick so as not to damage the paper surface. Better to do it from the wrong side of the part;
- Keep your fingers clean and be sure to use wipes to wipe your hands, because hands may get dirty in the process;
- wind up cylindrical parts before gluing onto a round object of a suitable diameter, this will give them shape;
- Before gluing it is necessary to paint the ends of the part. White crop lines spoil the overall look of the model. To paint the ends, use watercolors or gouache paints. After selecting the desired color, apply them in a thin layer, then allow the paint to dry. About markers better to forget;
- Take your time with gluing. First, cut out the part, paint it from the end, wait for the paint to dry, assemble the part. Attach it to the place where it should be to make sure everything is done correctly. And only then stick. Do not forget to let the glue dry.
A bit of history
Nakajima Ki-84 Hayate Fighter
Fighter Type 4, «Hayate»(“Hurricane”,“StormyWind”or“Frank”intheterminologyoftheallies),NakajimaKi-84(Jap.?84)isaJapanesearmyfighterduringtheSecondWorldWar.Createdbythefirm«Nakajima»in1942-1943toreplacetheKi-43"Hayabusa".Itwasseriallyproducedfrom1943untiltheveryendofthewar; a total of 3,514 Ki-84s were produced in various versions. It was actively used by Japanese troops in the battles in 1944-1945. Recognized by military experts as the best serial Japanese fighter of the second half of the war and one of the best piston fighters of its time.
"Nakajima Hikoki Kabusiki Kaisa" was tested in 1943. After the production of the licensed German engine Daimler-Benz DB 601A (under the designation Kawasaki Na-40) was established in Japan, a design team headed by T.Koyama was commissioned at Nakadima, which was commissioned to develop a fighter power plant. He was given the designation Ki-62 and he had to become a competitor to the project of the company "Kawasaki", known as Ki-61. Since the Kawasaki specialists had more experience in creating aircraft with liquid-cooled engines, and the Nakajima company was also engaged in the Ki-43 and Ki-44 fighters, the Ki-62 project was closed. Nevertheless, the experience gained by the group of T. Koyama in the process of working on the Ki-62 and Ki-bZ aircraft (the Ki-62 variant for the Mitsubishi Na-102 air cooling engine) was too valuableand it was decided to use it when in January 1942 representatives of Cocu Hombu began to discuss the question of the successor of the Ki-43 Hayabusa fighter.
It was assumed that this would be a multi-purpose long-range fighter capable of surpassing the best Western aircraft. Its maximum speed at an altitude of 5,000 meters was to reach 640–680 km / h, and the fuel supply should provide 90 minutes of combat mode at a distance of 400 km from the base. Although the requirements for maneuverability were reduced compared to the Ki-43, they were higher than the Ki-44 interceptor, since the new aircraft was intended mainly to fight enemy fighters. As the power plant, it was decided to use the new 18-cylinder double-row star-shaped air-cooled engine Nakajima On-45. It was planned that the armament will consist of two No-5 20-mm cannons and two Type 1 12.7-mm machine guns. A mandatory requirement is the availability of pilot’s body armor and tested fuel tanks.
Since the design of the new Japanese fighter of the second world war, designated Ki-84, was largely based on the Ki-62 and Ki-bZ, work on the design and construction of prototypes proceeded rapidly.They ended in March 1943, when the first prototype took to the air. In June, the second prototype made its first flight. The new aircraft was a low-profile all-metal design, which was distinguished by high manufacturability and had strength characteristics comparable to American fighters. The prototypes were equipped with Nakadzima Na-45-11 engines with four-blade propellers with variable pitch from Sumitomo. A special feature of the aircraft was the presence of large exhaust manifold pipes on both sides of the bonnet, dumped ventral fuel tank and protruding trunks of two machine guns mounted above the engine.
Description of Nakajima Ki-84 Hayate "Storm"
The Japanese World War II fighter Nakajima Ki-84-Ia Hayate (The Tempest) was a single-seat free-carrying monoplane of conventional design.
The dural semi-monocoque of oval section with a smoothly riveted working skin consisted of three sections. Motrama and the hood that closed the oil radiator, the air intakes of the carburetor and turbocharger, as well as the barrels of machine guns, were the first section.The central section included two fire partitions, between which a 160-liter tank with a water-methanol mixture was mounted, a cabin with a visor of 65 mm armored glass and 13 mm of an armored headpiece and pilot's armored armor, a three-section flashlight with a movable central section and a center wing section. The main fuel tank and radio equipment were installed in the rear fuselage section.
All-metal single-metal with working dural lining, consisted of a center section and external consoles. Liner-covered ailerons were attached to the 14th and 24th ribs by means of self-centering brackets. The aileron thrust was attached at its central point. Hydraulically actuated Fowler type flaps had a maximum exhaust angle of 35 °. In the wing, space was provided for two guns, two main and two additional gas tanks in the front part, wheel niches and underwing holders mounted outside the guns.
The steering wheel, like the other control planes, had a metal frame with linen trim. The horizontal stabilizer was located far ahead of the keel.
Fully retractable conventional type with hydraulic drive. The main pillars were retracted inwards and horizontally in the wings, where they were completely closed by smoothly adjacent doors. Hydraulic brakes. The uncontrolled tail wheel retracts into the fuselage and is also completely closed with flaps.
18-cylinder Army Type 4 Model 11 or 12 (Nakajima Ha-45-11 or Ha-45-12), which developed 1,800 hp at 2900 rpm on take-off, 1,650 hp at 2,000 m and 1,460 hp at 5,700 m . Four-blade constant speed screw with electric control, with a diameter of 3050 or 3100 mm.
According to Japanese documents, the maximum internal reserve in one fuselage and four wing tanks was 737 liters. However, the American flight test reports give the following figures: a 218-liter rear fuselage tank, two main tank tanks (in the left and right wing) of 174 liters each and two tank tanks in the front of the consoles, 67 liters each; total stock 700 l. 200 liters of drop tanks could be suspended under the wings.
2 x 12.7 mm synchronized Ho-103 machine gun (350 cartridges per barrel) in the upper front of the fuselage and 2 x 0 mm Ho-5 cannons (150 shells per barrel) in the wings outside the landing gear.Underlay holders for two bombs up to 250 kg in caliber.
Flight tests of the two prototypes were fairly fast and successful, so typical for new samples of complex technology "childhood diseases" almost never met. For more detailed operational tests, an experimental batch of 83 machines was ordered, which were produced at the plant in Ota during the period from August 1943 to March 1944 and differed from each other in minor details. Military pilots, who already appreciated how important speed and high survivability were to the fighter, took the plane well, even though its maximum speed of 624 km / h was below the required speed, and at a height of 5000 m it was typed in 6.25 minutes. The pilots criticized the Ki-84 only for too much effort on the elevator at high speeds and for some “softness” of the rudder at low speeds. In general, the new aircraft surpassed not only the Japanese fighter aircraft in service. but also all prototypes, ready at that time to be launched into batch production.According to the test results, the Japanese fighter Ki-84 was adopted by the Air Force of the Imperial Army of Japan under the official designation "Army fighter Type 4 Model 1A Hayate (Storm)" (Ki-84-Ia).The Nakajima company was ordered to immediately start mass production of the aircraft at its plants in the cities of Ota and Utsona. In addition, it was planned to establish its output in Harbin at the Mansyu plant.
But before that, the military ordered "Nakajima" to make a pre-production batch of 42 cars. They were built in March-June 1944, in fact simultaneously with the first production machines, which began to go with assembly lines in April 1944. Production aircraft and pre-production aircraft differed from their predecessors in the exhaust gas system with individual exhaust pipes, which increased the maximum speed by 14.5–16 km / h, and the use of two discharged underwing fuel tanks instead of one ventral fuselage.
Despite the very high performance of the Ki-84 army fighter, the specialists of the Nakajima company almost immediately began to improve the machine. Moreover, the work was aimed not only and not so much at improving the fighting qualities of the Hayate, as at improving the design's technological effectiveness, which would increase production volumes and reduce the proportion of strategic materials, the shortage of which was felt more and more acute in Japan every month.
As a result, the following modifications and variations were created:
Ki-84-I is the first serial modification, launched in April 1944. The aircraft were built at two factories of the Nakadzima company (in the cities of Ota and Utsonamiya) and the factory of the company Maneiu (in Harbin, Manchuria). In December 1944, despite the shortage of skilled workers, raw materials and materials, the peak of production of the "Hayate" was reached - 373 fighters. Initially, the Nakajima Na-45-11 engine with a capacity of 1,800 hp was installed on the Ki-84-I serial cars, but soon it was replaced by the 1825-strong variant Na-45-12, which then gave way to the 1990 Na engine. hp Depending on the weapons, the variants of Ki-84-Ia, Ki-84-Ib and Ki-84-Ic are distinguished. The planes of the first variant were armed with two Type 1 12.7-mm machine guns and two No-5 20-mm cannons located above the engine, and the machine guns were replaced with two No-5 cannons by the Ki-84-16b. The Ki-84-Ic (a small amount) was armed with two 20-mm synchronized No-5 cannons and two 30-mm No-105 30-wing cannons.
Ki-84-II (Ki-84 KAI) - a relatively small version with a wooden fuselage tail section and new wingtips, which were made at a plant in the city of Tanum.Most of the aircraft were equipped with 1990-strong engines Na-45-21, but some got an improved Na-45-25 of the same power. Late-series aircraft were equipped with Na-45-23 engines with direct injection of 2000 hp. The maximum speed increased to 670 km / h. In the military, the fighters of this modification were still designated Ki-84-Ib and Ki-84-Ic, depending on the weapons.
Ki-84-III - this designation received a high-altitude version of "Hayate." It was planned to equip the new fighter with a Nakajima Ha-45Ru twin turbo with a turbocharger, but work on this project was not completed until the end of the war.
The Ki-84N and Ki-84P are variants of a high-altitude interceptor with an 18-cylinder, two-row, Nakajima Na-44-13 engine with a capacity of 2500 hp. and the wing of the enlarged area (22.52 m2 at Ki-84N and 24.51 m: at Ki-84). By the time Japan surrendered, the planes were at the design stage, however, a massive release of the Ki-84N under the designation Ki-117 was already planned.
The Ki-84R is a variant with the standard glider Ki-84-I, modified for the installation of the Nakajima Na-45-44 engine with a power of 2000 hp. mechanically driven two-stage three-speed turbocharger. By the time of surrender, the prototype was 80% ready.
The Ki-106 is a variant designed by the Tachikava firm. It was an all-wood copy of the Ki-84 with an At-45-21 engine. In 1945, three prototypes were built, but until the end of the war only two had time to fly around. The first of the experimental aircraft was armed with four 20-mm No-5 guns, but to reduce weight, which increased by 272 kg, only two guns were installed on the second and third copies. Up to the last days of the war, work was proceeding on Tachikawa to further simplify the design — such was Koku Hombu’s demand before launching the Ki-106 into the series.
Ki-113 - designed in the autumn of 1944 version, in which the cabin section, stringers and ribs were made of carbon steel, and the skin - from ordinary sheet. The prototype, equipped with an engine of the Na-45-21 and armed with four 20-mm guns, was assembled in early 1945, but did not take off because of apparent over-gravity.
Ki-116 is a variant developed by specialists from Mansu. The only prototype manufactured was an orKi-84-Ia airframe and a Mntsubishi Na-33-62 engine with a capacity of 1,500 liters. s., which rotated the three-bladed propeller from Ki-46-III. The plane was successful, the mass of the empty car dropped by 454 kg, and the maneuverability increased.On the eve of Japan's surrender, the Ki-116 underwent intensive flight tests.
In total, from April 1944 to August 1945, Nakajima produced 3288 Ki-84 fighters, and another 95 aircraft were built by Manei. Quite a large number, especially when you consider that at this time, the Japanese islands were subjected to massive raids by American B-29 bombers, and the shortage of raw materials and materials and skilled labor became simply catastrophic.
Fighting debut "Hayate", held in China in March 1944, was successful. The Curtiss R-40 fighters opposed to them, at the controls of which Chinese and American pilots sat, were significantly inferior to the Ki-84 and suffered heavy losses. Later in the Philippines and in the skies over Japan, the Hayate had to face a more formidable opponent. But also in fights with such beautiful American fighters as Lockheed P-38J / L Republic P-47D and North American P-5 ID. Ki-84 proved to be very good, deserved not only the love of Japanese pilots and respect for the enemy, but also the title of the best Japanese fighter of the Second World War.
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