What is anesthetic
Most anesthetics are used in the process of surgical interventions, manipulations, procedures. Inhalation drugs are injected into the patient through a respiratory mask. They have one thing in common - very quickly removed through the lungs. This contributes to the rapid awakening of anesthesia and less depression of consciousness (lethargy, drowsiness) in the first days after anesthesia. These anesthetics include nitrous oxide (laughing gas), halothane, desflurane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane. Nitrous oxide is a colorless, odorless gas. With prolonged use of nitrous, this anesthetic reduces the level of hemoglobin, contributes to the appearance of neurological disorders, the development of fetal abnormalities in pregnant women.
Halothane is a colorless gas that has a sweetish odor, it can have a negative effect on the liver, so it should not be used for abnormal liver function. Halothane has a depressant effect on the cardiovascular system, so it should be used with caution in patients with cardiac abnormalities.The latest generation of inhalation anesthetics include isoflurane, desflurane, and sevoflurane. They are devoid of the negative qualities of halothane and nitrous oxide. The only contraindication to their use is malignant hyperthermia.
Non-inhalation anesthetics are introduced into the patient's body directly into the blood (through a vein). These drugs include Propofol, Sodium Thiopental, Calipsol, Sodium Oxybutyrate. "Propofol" - a modern drug, it allows the patient to quickly wake up after anesthesia. The only contraindication to its use is an allergy to this drug, as well as to soy and chicken egg. It is also not recommended to use this drug in pregnant women and children under 3 years old.
"Thiopental sodium" is contraindicated in case of revealed hypersensitivity to the drug, patients with porphyria, bronchial asthma. This drug should be used with caution in patients with arterial hypertension, sepsis, coronary heart disease, end-stage hepatic and renal failure.Anesthetic "Kalipsol" should be used with caution in patients with ischemic heart disease, severe hypertension, aneurysm. In rare cases, this drug can provoke psychosis, sometimes at the stage of awakening it causes hallucinations. The risk factor is the rapid introduction of anesthesia, old age.
For local anesthesia, a separate group of drugs is used. Modern local anesthetics (bupivacaine, ropivacaine) are considered relatively safe. The main contraindication to their use is an allergy to these drugs. With care, they should be used for heart block, severe chronic heart failure, arterial hypotension.
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