Wind generator with generator without magnetic sticking
And now a little history, and everything in order:
To build a windmill is my old dream, but there were many obstacles. He lived in a city apartment, but there was no dacha. That transfers from one city to another, then to the third. I have been living in Svetlovodsk for the last 18 years. There are all the conditions - a private cottage for two families, 5 hectare garden and the same garden. From the east and south open terrain, from the north and west, the relief is higher than mine. The winds do not indulge, i.e. not very strong. Well, I think, here I will build a wind turbine for the soul.
But when I started working closely, it turned out to be not so simple. I did not find a suitable literature.I could not decide on a generator for a long time, did not know how to make blades correctly, what gearbox to use, how to protect against a hurricane, etc. As they say, cooked in its own juice. But I knew that if you really want, then everything will work out. Leisurely did the mast. In Chermet, I picked up suitable pieces of pipes, starting with a diameter of 325 mm 1.5 m long (to fit in the trunk of my car). In return, he handed over scrap metal. The result was a mast length of 12m. For the foundation I brought a defective foundation block from a high-voltage support. I dug it 2 meters into the ground and 1m stayed above the ground. Then he scalded it with two belts from the corner, welded brackets to them. At the ends of the brackets to the anchor bolts, welded "plates" of 16mm iron 50 x 50 cm in size, connected by powerful loops. Bought on the market soft 10 mm cables and turnbuckles, all anodized, does not rust. He welded and buried the anchor under the removable winch. The winch also had to do homemade, using a ready-made worm gearbox. In addition, I installed a U-shaped support with a height of about 2 m, on which the mast should rest. Since there was nowhere to hurry - the mast was made without haste and therefore it turned out, in my opinion,beautiful and reliable.
I decided to build a dei Leica Geosystems reduced model, to deliver up to 1 amp to 12-volt battery.
I bought 24 pieces for making the rotor. diskneodymium magnet 20x5mm. I found a hub from the wheel of the motoblock, a turner according to my drawings, machined two steel disks with a diameter of 105 mm and a thickness of 5 mm, a spacer 15 mm thick and a shaft. I stuck epoxy magnets on the disks and half of them on each, alternating their polarity.
For the manufacture of the stator I wound 12 coils with enamel wire with a diameter of 0.5 mm with 60 turns per coil (picked up wire from the demagnetization loop of the old worthless color picture tube, there it is enough of it). Unsolder the coils in series with the end with the beginning with the beginning and so on. It turned out one phase (I was afraid that there would be not enough voltage). I cut out a form of 4 mm plywood, waxed it.
Sorry, the entire form has not been saved.On the bottom base he put waxed paper (he was screwed into his wife in the kitchen, she makes baking on her), she was put on her form with a round in the center. Then he cut two circles from fiberglass. One bed was placed on the waxed paper of the lower base of the mold. He laid out the coils soldered to each other. Conclusions from a stranded insulated wire laid shallow grooves cut by a hacksaw. Filled it all with epoxy. He waited about an hour for all the air bubbles to come out, and the epoxy spilled evenly over the entire mold and soaked the coils, refilled it where necessary, and covered it with a second circle of glass fiber. From above put the second sheet of wax paper and pressed it with the upper base (piece of chipboard). The main thing that both bases were strictly flat. In the morning I disconnected the form and extracted a beautiful transparent stator 4mm thick.
It is a pity that the epoxy is not suitable for a more powerful wind turbine because afraid of heat.
I inserted 2 bearings into the hub, in them a shaft with a key, on the shaft the first rotor disk with magnets glued and half filled with epoxy, then a spacer sleeve 15 mm thick. Stator thickness with filled coils 4mm, thickness of magnets 5mm, total 5 + 4 + 5 = 14mm.On the discs of the rotor, the edges at the edges of 0.5 mm are left so that the magnets rest against the centrifugal force (just in case). Therefore, we take 1mm. 13mm left. On the gaps remains on 1mm. Therefore, 15mm strut. Then the stator (a transparent disc with coils), which is attached to the hub by three copper 5 mm bolts, they can be seen in the photo. After putting the second disk of the rotor, which rests on the spacer. You need to be careful that the finger does not fall under the magnets - it is very painful to pinch. (The opposite magnets on the disks must have different polarity, i.e. attract.)
The gaps between the magnets and The stator is regulated by copper nuts placed on copper bolts on both sides of the hub.
A propeller is put on the remaining protruding part of the shaft with a key, which through the washer (and if you need a sleeve) and the rover is pressed with a nut to the rotor. It is advisable to close the nut with a fairing (I never did it).
But he made a roof-visor over the rotor and stator, sawing an aluminum saucepan so as to capture part of the bottom and part of the side wall.
The propeller was made from a meter-long piece of duraluminized irrigation pipe with a diameter of 220 mm and a wall thickness of 2.5 mm.
I just drew a two-bladed propeller on it and sawed it with an electric jigsaw. (From the same piece, I also sawed three blades 1 m long for a wind turbine on an autogenerator, and as you can see, it remains). I rounded the front edge of the blades "by eye" with a radius equal to half the thickness of the duralumin, and the rear edge was sharpened with a facet about 1 cm at the ends and up to 3 cm to the center.
the propeller first drilled a 1mm hole with a balancing drill. You can balance it right on the drill by putting the drill on the table, or hang it on a string from the ceiling. It is necessary to balance very carefully. I separately balanced the rotor discs and the propeller separately. After all, speed reaches 1500 r / min.
Since magnetic sticking is absent, the propeller rotates merrily from the slightest breeze that you don’t even feel on the ground. When working wind develops high speed, I have an ammeter for 2A direct connection, so it often rolls over to a 12 volt old car battery. The truth at the same time begins to take shape and rise up the tail, i.e.automatic protection against strong winds and excessive turns.
Protection is based on the inclined axis of rotation of the tail.
The axis deviation is 18-20 degrees from the vertical.
I have been working this windmill for 3 months. Removed, disassembled - the bearings are in order, the stator is also intact. Magnets have a little rusted in places where no paint has fallen. The cable goes directly without a current collector. I have it done, but I changed my mind to put it. When the small windmill dismantled - it was not twisted. So I made sure - he is not needed, only extra trouble. He gave up to 30 watts of power. The noise from the propeller is not heard when the windows are closed.
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